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What are the Stages of Colon Cancer

What are the stages of colon cancer that you should know? Like other cancers, colon cancer is divided into 4 stages. The results showed that the life expectancy for stage I cancer patients was 90 percent.

In stage II it is 40 to 60 percent and lowers in advanced stages, where a palliative action is an option, namely actions to maintain quality of life even though it is not 100 percent cure for cancer.

In general, colon cancer begins when healthy cells in the colon undergo changes in their DNA structure due to mutations. DNA is the source of information from a cell that contains what a cell has to do.

In cancer, this DNA contains instructions for continuing to divide, resulting in the formation of an abnormal mass. Mutations that can cause DNA damage are usually caused by substances from outside the body that can trigger damage and cancer.

What are the Stages of Colon Cancer

 

What are the Stages of Colon Cancer to Know

Colon cancer is generally asymptomatic in stages 0 and I so it is rarely detected. At these two stages, therapy can be done in the form of surgery to remove cancer without chemotherapy.

Symptoms usually only start to be felt in stage II, such as frequent bloody stools, shrinking like a pencil or small and black in color, experiencing drastic weight loss without any known reason, abdominal pain, frequent diarrhea or constipation, cramps, and frequent bloating, and frequent constipation. feel incomplete.

In addition to surgery to treat stage II cancer, your doctor may suggest chemotherapy after surgery if the cancer cells are known to be at high risk of returning (recurrence).

In some cases, patients with advanced cancer that cannot be completely removed surgically will receive neoadjuvant chemotherapy (chemotherapy given before surgery) which is given along with radiation. The goal is to shrink cancer so that it can be removed surgically.

So, what are the stages of colon cancer? Cancer at stage III means that it has spread to the lymph nodes and at stage IV, cancer often spreads to other organs of the body, such as the liver, lungs, and brain.

At this advanced stage, the treatment that can be done is surgery to remove the part of the colon containing cancer along with the nearby lymph nodes, plus surgery to remove the area where cancer has spread.

At this stage, chemotherapy is usually given after surgery. If the spread of cancer is too large, neoadjuvant chemotherapy is given to shrink cancer before it is removed.

In stage IV, if cancer has spread too much to be treated with surgery, chemotherapy is the mainstay of treatment. Surgery may still be needed if cancer has obstructed the large intestine causing the patient to be unable to defecate.

Some of the Triggers of Colon Cancer

After knowing what are the stages of colon cancer, now you must know what triggers it. In most cases, colorectal cancer starts from colon polyps or tissue that grows on the inner wall of the colon or rectum, but not all polyps will develop into cancer.

The possibility of polyps turning into cancer depends on its type. Meanwhile, there are also several other factors that can trigger colorectal cancer, namely:

1. The risk is increasing with age, most cases of colorectal cancer are experienced by someone aged 50 years or older.

2. History of illness. A person with a history of colorectal cancer or polyps is more at risk of developing colorectal cancer.

3. Genetic diseases. A person with a disease that runs in families, such as Lynch syndrome, is at increased risk of developing colorectal cancer.

4. Inflammation of the intestines. Colorectal cancer is at high risk for people with ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease.

Because cancer in its early stages often goes undetected, it's a good idea to have regular health checks. Maintaining a healthy lifestyle is also very important, especially if you already know what are the stages of colon cancer.

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